April 5, 2017

Download A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton by Jeffrey Heath PDF

By Jeffrey Heath

This article offers grammar in English of a language of the Songhay relatives of West Africa. The emphasis is on grammatical different types and morphosyntax. subject matters contain: focalization and relativization, logophoric pronouns, conjunctions and serial verbs.

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Extra resources for A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19)

Example text

There is some justification for treating diphthongs as quasi-units, since only certain vowel-semivowel combinations occur. All diphthongs in the language are upgliding (vowel plus semivowel). 1 Short-nucleus diphthongs In KCh, the following short-nucleus diphthongs are well-established in the sense that they can occur word-finally in nouns and verbs: {oy ew ey~ay ow~aw}. These diphthongs all involve low or mid-height nuclei. The diphthongs iw and uy, with high nucleus and sharp differentiation of nucleus and coda, are attested but rare, iw occurs in the semi-onomatopoeic titiw 'shatter', and in one variant of ciwsi ~ cipsi 'sacrificial ram' (

Hiiji toone 'accuse' 'fail' d. mor/go waafaku 'agree' e. sendu 'be difficult' futu 'be bad' f. koo 'be dry' yey 'be cold' Abstr form baan-ey hin-ey hiij-ey toon-ey moqg-oy waafak-oy send-ey fut-ey koog-ey, koog-oy yeen-ey gloss 'softness' 'wherewithal' 'marriage' '(verbal) attack' 'inability' 'agreement' 'difficulty' 'evil, anger' 'dryness' 'coldness' When the simple verb ends in a consonant, as in (41a-b), the Abstr suffix is -ey. The irregular cases in (4If) can also be described as having -ey added to a special Cfinal presuffixal stem allomorph.

And still going strong in HS. Second, KCh and DjCh have merged *z and *j (affricate) as j, so z is no longer part of the phonology except in a few recent loanwords. KCh j may therefore correspond to either KS z orj, hence the homophones in (26). (26) Correspondences of KCh (and DjCh) affricate j KChDjCh KS iGao) gloss jii jii 'butter' zii 'swim' or 'push' 16 2 Overview Third, KCh and DjCh show S-MAN-V-X constituent order (subject, mood-aspectnegation, verb, other elements including direct object), while KS, HS, and the nonMalian varieties show S-MAN-O-V-X order with the direct object preceding the verb.

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