By William L. Leap
Examines the range of English in American Indian speech groups.
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Extra info for American Indian English
Isleta's economy is, by tradition, agriculturally based. A complex system of irrigation canals and ditches brings water from the Rio Grande to irrigate fields of alfalfa and other grains and the gardens of corn, beans, chilis, and other vegetable crops. Tribal landholding practices guarantee that every Isleta household will have access to farmland, though households whose members do not make use of their assigned lands may find the lands assigned to some other household by action of the tribal council.
Chemehuevi, Navajo, and Hopi students also speak in their own varieties of English. " Importantly, these students retain these tribe-specific contrasts in English throughout their grade school careers and, apparently, into adulthood. Classroom-based instruction leads to improvements in some areas of English skill, but does not alter areas through which the speaker's tribal background can be displayed. < previous page page_43 next page > < previous page page_44 next page > Page 44 Chapter 2 Sound Patterns, Sentence Forms, and Meanings The statistics and case studies from chapter 1 show that many American Indians and Alaska Natives are speakers of English and that encounters with English discoursebrought about by the media, by English-centered schools, businesses, and political institutions, and by the presence of non-Indiansare unavoidable features of daily life, even for those who are not speakers of that language.
Federal agencies often provide essential services to the American Indian/Alaska Native residents and businesses located on reservation lands, but tribal governments nonetheless retain their sovereignty in these settings. Also relevant to this category are the areas of stateadministered land maintained on behalf of the state-recognized tribes. Off-reservation, rural designates residence in an area adjacent to, rather than inside, one of these "trust" areas. Included here are many federally recognized tribes in Oklahoma (whose reservationsexcept for that of the Osageceased to exist when Oklahoma became a state in 1906), tribes whose "status as Indians" is no longer acknowledged by the federal government, as well as Indian groups whose Indian status has never been acknowledged by non-Indian authorities.
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